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Antibiotic Resistance and Sanitation in India: Current Situation and Future Perspectives
, Sasikaladevi R., Kiruthika Eswari V.
Published in Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat as the existing health care may become ineffective. Antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) considered as emerging contaminants are the three major components of AMR. India is one of the largest consumers of antibiotics with defined daily dose (DDD) of 4,950 per 1,000 population in 2015. By 2030, therapeutic and nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in veterinary animals is projected to increase by 18%. Antibiotics, ARB, and ARGs in the solid and liquid waste generated enter the environment via different pathways. The major sources of antibiotics, ARB, and ARG include domestic, hospital, and pharmaceutical industry wastewater apart from the solid/liquid waste generated from veterinary and food animals. Existing conventional wastewater treatment technologies like activated sludge process (ASP) do not ensure complete removal of antibiotics, ARB, and ARGs from wastewater. Similarly, the sludge generated find its way to agriculture land and eventually spread resistance in the environment. Once introduced in the environment, elimination of these contaminants is difficult. India’s action plan on AMR in 2017 regulates antibiotic use for human and animal and addresses environment AMR spread from all possible sources and containment. In 2020, the Government of India introduced discharge standard for 121 antibiotics in the effluents of bulk drug manufacturing industries, formulation industries, and common effluent treatment plant (CETP) receiving pharmaceutical wastewater.

About the journal
JournalData powered by TypesetAntibiotic Resistance in the Environment
PublisherData powered by TypesetSpringer Berlin Heidelberg
Open AccessNo