Methanol offers certain specific advantages over hydrogen; it is cheap, plentiful, and renewable from wood alcohol, and since it is a liquid, it is easily stored, transported, and distributed. A lower ionomer content limits the ionic conduction in the catalyst layer, while a higher ionomer content reduces the mass transport. Although the ionomer content controls the DMFC performance, the amount of ionomer used depends on the preparation method of the MEA. Therefore, the catalyst surface in the DMFC will be poisoned by many surface intermediates. Consequently, a suitable electrocatalyst must be developed that can resist poisoning by the surface intermediates created by partial oxidation. High efficiencies may be achieved because of the unique properties of nanomaterials, particularly vectorial transfer of charge in dimensionally modulated supports;90 additional benefits include the possibility of high surface areas, sufficient chemical resistivity, and superior mechanical strength.