Purpose - Recently, a number of research projects have been focused on an emerging additive manufacturing process, termed ultrasonic consolidation (UC). The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical energy model aimed at investigating the effects of process parameters on bond formation in UC. Design/methodology/approach - In the model, two factors are defined, energy input to the workpiece within a single cycle of ultrasonic vibration (E 0) and total energy input to the workpiece (Et), to evaluate to the magnitude of transmitted energy into the workpiece during UC. Findings - It is found that linear weld density, E0 and Et are affected by process parameters in similar manners. Research limitations/implications - The current model is developed based on several simplifying assumptions, and energy dissipation and bond degradation during UC are not considered in the model. Originality/value - The current model gives a useful understanding of the effects of process parameter on the bond formation in UC from an energy point of view. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.