Sustainable development necessitates the management of progress in science and technology for society's betterment while preserving Earth's resources. In this regard, the appearance in recent years of low-cost sophisticated products consuming resources economically is a force for good. This effort terms each of these products as an advanced frugal innovation to highlight the frugality in resource consumption during the realization of these innovations through advances in various scientific disciplines. Other than 25 examples of advanced frugal innovations in a wide range of sectors from rural electrification to particle physics, a framework for the systematic realization of such innovations for sustainable development has also been described. The innovations showcased bring out the use of advances in science and technology or cutting edge knowledge for creating these low-cost sophisticated products. Moreover, the need for innovators typically with training in advanced knowledge areas to handle the sophistication in technology for the successful fruition of these innovations is also discussed. This effort supports the frugal design and frugal engineering of innovations, whether grassroots or the advanced type, through sound scientific principles for the creation of robust products, especially where the human life is at stake, in various sectors for all-round sustainable development. © 2017 IEEE.