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Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Sensing Techniques for Exhaled Breath Diagnostics
, Selvaraj Ramya, , Mizaikoff Boris
Published in MDPI AG
Volume: 25
Issue: 9

Human exhaled breath consists of more than 3000 volatile organic compounds, many of which are relevant biomarkers for various diseases. Although gas chromatography has been the gold standard for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection in exhaled breath, recent developments in mid-infrared (MIR) laser spectroscopy have led to the promise of compact point-of-care (POC) optical instruments enabling even single breath diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the evolution of MIR sensing technologies with a special focus on photoacoustic spectroscopy, and its application in exhaled breath biomarker detection. While mid-infrared point-of-care instrumentation promises high sensitivity and inherent molecular selectivity, the lack of standardization of the various techniques has to be overcome for translating these techniques into more widespread real-time clinical use.

About the journal
PublisherMDPI AG
Open AccessNo