Schools are one of the critical social infrastructures in a society, the first place for social activity and the most important indoor environment for children besides the home. Poor IAQ in classrooms can increase the chance of long-term and short-term health problems for students and staffs; affects productivity of teachers; and degrade the student learning environment and comfort levels. The primary objective of this paper is to review and summarize available scientific evidence on indoor air quality of schools and related health effects in children. It was found that the indoor air pollutant levels in school buildings varied over a wide range in different parts of the world depending on site characteristics, climatic conditions, outdoor pollution levels, occupant activities, ventilation type and building practices. Among the indoor air pollutants, particulate matter concentrations were found to be very high in many schools. Outdoor pollutant sources also play a major role in affecting the IAQ of the school building. Hence, scientific knowledge on sources of indoor pollutants, quantification of emissions, temporal and spatial dispersion of pollutants, toxicological properties, chemical and morphological characteristics of the pollutants and associated health risk among children in the school buildings are essential to evaluate the adequacy and cost effectiveness of control strategies for mitigating the IAQ issues. © 2018, Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment.