Electrolyte insulator semiconductor capacitors (EISCAPs) show a shift in the measured capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with changes in the pH of the electrolyte and has the potential to be used as biosensors. The choice of an electrode to the EISCAP is important for reliable measurements. Here, we discuss a silicon-based EISCAP sensor bonded to a glass wafer with an embedded electrode. Three noble metal electrodes (Pt, Au, Ag) are studied for the ease of integration and performance and it is found that the chloridized Ag electrodes exhibit the highest pH sensitivity and the lowest electrode potential drift with time. A readout system that measures the pH of the electrolyte under test is developed and implemented in a programmable system on chip. Calibration of the EISCAP to account for sensor process variations is also incorporated. The pH measurement data on the miniaturized EISCAPs is presented. © 2001-2012 IEEE.